Important Slave Dynasty Notes For Exam Preparation
Slave Dynasty Notes – After Muhammad Ghori Death all the Muslim rulers who Ruled over India From AD 1206-1290 were Either Slaves or were descendants of the slave ruler. So the dynasty is generally known as The Slave Dynasty. The dynasty is also called Ilbari dynasty, as all the rulers of this dynasty Except Qutubuddin Aibak Belonged to the Ilbari tribe of Turks.
Qutubuddin Aibak ( 1206-1210 AD ) Slave Dynasty Notes
- Originally a Slave , Qutubuddin because of his merit and loyal service was rose to the post of Viceroy by Muhammad Ghori. After Ghori death, Qutubuddin Aibak ruled over Delhi and founded his dynasty.
- First Lahore and later Delhi was his Capital
- For his Generosity he was given the title of Lakh baksh.
- He constructed two mosques Quwwat-ul-islam at Delhi and Adhai Din ka Jhopra at Ajmer.
- He also began the Construction of Qutub Minar in the honour of famous Sufi saint Khwaja Qutub-ud-din Bakhtiyar kaki.
- Aibak was Great patron of learning, and patronised writers like Hasan-ul-Nizami, author of Taj-ul-massin and Fakhruddin author of Tarik-i-mubarak-shahi.
- He died in 1210 AD while Playing Chaugan or Polo.
Shamsuddin Iltutmish ( 1211-1236 AD ) Slave Dynasty Notes
- He was a Slave of Qutubuddin Aibak and occupied the throne of Delhi in 1211 AD after deposing Aram Baksh.
- He was a very capable ruler and is regarded as the ‘ Real founder of the Delhi Sultanate’. He amde Delhi the capital in place of Lahore.
- He is considered to be the Greatest slave king and the real consolidator of the Turkish conquest in India.
- In 1215 AD he defeated Yaldoz who established himself as the independent ruler of Ghazni. He sent Expeditions against the Rajputs in Ranthambor, Jalor, Gwalior Ajmer and Malwa.
- During his Period, the Mongols under their leader changez khan made their appearance for the first time in India. He saved Delhi Sultanate from the wrath of Changez khan by refusing shelter to khwarizm shah, Jalaluddin Mangobanni, to whom Changez khan was chasing.
- He got his authority recognised by the Caliph of Baghdad as a member of world Fraternity of Islamic States.
- He completed the construction of Qutub Minar.
- He constituted a corp of 40 Royal Slave Amins, Known as Turkan-i-chahalgani or chalisa.
- He started Iqta System in Delhi sultanate. This is an Assignment of land in lieu of salary, which he distributed to his officers. Every Iqtadar had to maintain law and order, and collect Revenue. After Deducting his salary and the Expenses of the Government, he sent the surplus amount to the Central Government.
- He introduced the silver Tanka and copper Jital.
- He Patronised Minhaj-us-siraj author of Tabaqat-i-Nasiri.
- He is called the father of Tomb building ( built Sultan Garhi in Delhi )
Rukunuddin Firoz (1236 AD ) Slave Dynasty Notes
Iltutmish Appointed his daughter Raziya Sultan as his Successor.but most of the noblescould not reconcile themselves to the idea of woman ruling over them and so they placed one of his son Rukunuddin Firoz on the throne. He was a worthless person who left the work of the government in the hand of his mother Shah turkan.
Finally throne was given to Raziya Sultan when he was out of the capital to curb a Rebellion in Awadh against him.
Raziya Sultan (1236-1240 AD ) Slave Dynasty Notes
- She was the first and the last Muslim woman Ruler of Medieval India.
- Raziya successfully crushed the Rebellions that occurred in Multan, Lahore and jhansi. The wazir Nizam-ul-mulk Junaidi who had opposed her Elevation to the throne, was defeated by Raziya.
- She also sent an Expedition against Ranthambor to control the Rajput.
- She discarded the female apparel and started holding the court with her face unveiled.
- Her attempt to create a party of nobles loyal to her and the appointment of a non turk, Yakut to the High office led to Opposition.
- She herself led an Expedition against the rebellious governor of Lahore and forced him to acknowledge her suzerainty.
- There was again a serious rebellion in bhatinda. Altunia, Governor of bhatinda refused to accept the suzerainty of Razia Sultan. Raziya accompanied by Yakut and marched against Altunia.
- However Altunia murdered Yakut and imprisoned Razia Sultan. Subsequently Razia married Altunia and both of them marched towards Delhi. In 1240 AD Razia Sultan became the victim of a conspiracy and was assaisinated near Kaithal Haryana by Jats.
Ghiyasuddin Balban ( 1265-1286 AD ) Slave Dynasty Notes
- Balban ascended the throne in 1265, after killing all the family members of Iltutmish. He himself was a member of the chalisa or Chahalgani but he broke the power of chahalgani and restored the Prestige of the crown.
- He created a strong centralised army and established the military department Diwan-i-arz. He ordered the separation of military affairs from finance department ( diwan-i-wazarat ). He also appointed spies.
- He declared the Sultan as the ‘ Representative of God on Earth ‘ the Persian court model influenced balban conception of kingship. He took up the title of Zil-i-ilahi’ and impressed Upon the people that king was deputy of God ( Niyabat-i-khudai ).
- He refused to laugh and joke in the court , and even gave up drinking wine. To Emphasis that the nobles wee not his equals, he insisted on the Iranian ceremonies of sijda and paibos ( kissing the monarch feet )
- Balban started the festival of Nauroz. He adopted the policy of Blood and iron.
- He was a patron of Persian literature and showed special Favour to Amir khusro.
These Slave Dynasty Notes are Especially for the students who are preparing for SSC Railway Exams. These slave dynasty notes are short and detailed in Points wise.