Best Khilji Dynasty Notes For UPSC Exam 2023

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Important Khilji Dynasty Notes For UPSC and SSC Exam

In this topic we will discuss about The Important rulers of Khilji Dynasty, First ruler of Khilji dynasty and The Alauddin Khilji Empire. This is the Second Dynasty after The Slave Dynasty which ruled on the Throne of Delhi.

Important Khilji dynasty notes for UPSC SSC examination

Khilji Dynasty was a Turko-Afghan Dynasty which ruled on the Delhi sultanate Covering large parts of the Indian Subcontinent for nearly three decades between 1290 to 1320 AD. This Dynasty was founded by Jalaluddin Firuz Khilji as the second dynasty to rule the Delhi Sultanate of india.

A group of Khilji Nobles led by Jalaluddin Khilji overthrew the Incompetent Successors of Balban in 1290 AD. The Khilji rebellion was welcomed by the Non Turkish Nobility. The khilji did not exclude the Turks from High offices but ended the Turkish Monopoly.

Important Rulers of Khilji Dynasty

1. Jalaluddin Firuz Khilji ( The First Ruler of Khilji Dynasty ) 1290-1296 AD

Jalaluddin Khilji was the Founder of Khilji Dynasty and the first Ruler of Khilji Dynasty to ruled the Delhi Sultanate from 1290-1296 AD. His original name was Firuz. Jalaluddin started his career as an officer in Mamluk Dynasty and rose to an important position under Sultan Muizzuddin Qaiqabad.

Jalaluddin ascended the throne of Delhi in 1290 AD as the first ruler of Khilji Dynasty at the Unfinished Kilokhri palace near Delhi. At the Time of his ascension Jalaluddin was very unpopular among people. He had little support among the Turkish Nobles who viewed him as an Afghan ( Pashtun ).

  1. He was the First Ruler of the Delhi Sultanate to clearly put forward the view that the state should be based on the willing support of the governed, and since the large majority of People in India were Hindus, The state in India could not be Truly Islamic State.
  2. He adopted the Policy of tolerance and avoiding Harsh Punishment.
  3. The most Important aspect of His reign was the Invasion of Devagiri In 1294 AD, By his Nephew and Son in law Alauddin Khilji.
  4. He married his daughter to Ulugh Khan a descendant of Chenghiz khan to win his Goodwill.

Early Life of Jalaluddin Khilji

Jalal-ud-din Khilji was born in 1259 in the city of Khilat, which is now in Afghanistan. His father, Shihab-ud-din Mas’ud, was a commander in the army of the Mamluk Sultanate of Delhi. Jalal-ud-din Khilji received military training from his father and gained a reputation for his valor and courage.

Ascension to the Throne

In 1290, Jalal-ud-din Khilji overthrew the last ruler of the Mamluk Dynasty, Qaiqabad. He came to power at the age of thirty-one and was known for his benevolent and just rule. He made significant efforts to promote agriculture and trade and ensured that his subjects were well taken care of.

Military Reforms of Jalaluddin Khilji

khilji dynasty notes for upsc Study Pariksha

Jalal-ud-din Khilji introduced significant reforms in the military to strengthen his kingdom’s defenses. He appointed capable and trustworthy officers to important positions and established a system of spies to keep a check on the activities of his officials. He also encouraged the recruitment of soldiers from all castes and religions, which helped to build a diverse and loyal army. He also made significant efforts to improve the cavalry, which was the backbone of the army.

Administrative Reforms of Jalaluddin Khilji

Jalal-ud-din Khilji introduced several administrative reforms to improve governance and ensure that his subjects were well taken care of. He established a new department, the Diwan-i-Khairat, which was responsible for providing relief to the poor and destitute. He also introduced a system of weights and measures to regulate trade and commerce. He appointed capable and trustworthy officials to important positions and established a system of justice to ensure that his subjects received justice.

Promotion of Agriculture and Trade

Jalal-ud-din Khilji made significant efforts to promote agriculture and trade, which were the mainstays of his kingdom’s economy. He encouraged the cultivation of crops such as wheat, barley, and cotton and established a system of irrigation to improve agricultural productivity. He also encouraged the development of trade and commerce and established a system of trade fairs and markets to promote trade.

2. Alauddin Khilji ( Other Name Ali Gurshasp ) 1296-1316 AD

Alauddin Khilji was the Nephew and Son-in-law of Sultan Jalaluddin Khilji. When Jalaluddin became the Sultan of Delhi. After Deposing the Mamluk, Alauddin was given the position of Amir-i-Tuzuk ( Master of Ceremonies ). Alauddin Khilji obtained the Governorship of Kara in 1291 AD after Suppressing a revolt against Jalaluddin Khilji.

In 1296 AD Alauddin Khilji raided Devagiri and acquired loot to stage a successful revolt against Jalaluddin Khilji.

  1. He came to teh throne by murdering his uncle and father in law Jalaluddin Khilji.
  2. He proclaimed Himself as Sultan winning over the Nobles and Soldiers to his side by the lavish use of Gold.
  3. He Massacred the rebellious Nobles Relatives, Family Members and the Mongols Who had settled in Delhi. Alauddin gave harsh Punishment even to the wives an children of all nobles.
  4. Alauddin framed a Series of Regulations to prevent the nobles From conspiring against him. They were forbidden to hold Banquets of Festivals or to form Marriage alliances Without the permission of the Sultan.
  5. To discourage the Festival parties he banned the use of wines and intoxicants. He also Instituted a Spy service to keep himself Informed of all that the Nobles said and did.
  6. He firstly conquered Gujarat and Married Raja’s Wife Kamla Devi. He Acquired Malik Kafur from there. Then he captured Ranthambhore, Chittor and Malwa.
  7. Malik Kafur was Sent towards South to Expand the territory.
  8. He defeated Yadava King of Devagiri. He is said to have reached as far as Rameshwaram where he built a Mosque.
  9. Alauddin Strengthened the North west Frontier under his trusted Commander Ghazi Malik.
khilji dynasty notes for upsc Study Pariksha
Copper Coin of Alauddin Khilji

Administrative Reforms Of Alauddin Khilji Empire

  1. First Sultan to have a Permanent Army . He paid Soldiers In cash.
  2. In order to avoid the problems created by the Nobles, Alauddin issued Four Important ordinances.
  3. Confiscation of Religious endowments and free grants of lands, Reorganised the spy System, Prohibited the use of Wine and Intoxicants.
  4. Laid down that the Nobles should not have social Gatherings and they should not inter Marry without his permission.
  5. He introduced the System of Dagh or Branding the Horses and Chehra or detailed description of each soldier.

Revenue Reforms of Alauddin Khilji Empire

  1. Measured the Cultivable land and fixed the land revenue. Bishwa was declared to be the Standard of Measurement.
  2. The state demanded the Half of the produce.
  3. The post of Special Official called Mustakharaj was created for the purpose of collection of revenue.
  4. Alauddin is credited to have built many forts, and the most important of them is Alai Fort.
  5. He also constructed the Alai darwaza the Entrance gate of the Qutub Minar.
  6. He also built the Palace of thousand pillars called ‘ Hazar Situn ‘. Hauz khas and jamait khana Mosque and built his capital at siri. He adopted the Title Sikandar-i-Sahni
  7. He was the first Turkish Sultan who separated religion from Politics. He proclaimed kingship Knows no Kingship.
  8. He Patronised many Great poets in his court like Amir Khusro and Mir Hasan Dehlvi.

Successors of Alauddin Khilji

After the death of Alauddin Khilji in 1316 AD Malik Kafur seized the throne, but he could not rule for long and nominated Shiabuddin ( Alauddin Sixteenth son ) as King.

Shiabuddin was deposed by Qutubuddin Mubarak Shah (1316-1320 AD ). In 1320 AD Nasiruddin Shah killed Mubarak Shah and himself was killed by Ghazi Malik the Governor of Dipalpur.

this Ended the 30 years Rule of Khilji Dynasty and established the Tughlaq Dynasty on throne of Delhi sultanate.

These notes are Important for UPSC SSC and all Other Govt Examination. We covers all the Important aspects of The Khilji Dynasty from which mostly Questions were asked in previous exams. If you properly read these notes in a good manner and Focus on the Main events. So you will definitely attempt all the questions from the Khilji Dynasty. These notes are also for Banking and Railway Exams.

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