Detailed Tughlaq Dynasty UPSC Notes – Tughlaq Dynasty Rulers | Founder of Tughlaq Dynasty
Tughlaq Dynasty was a Muslim Dynasty of Turkic origin. After the death of Alauddin Khilji the Delhi Sultanate was Ruled by Khusro khan last ruler of Khilji Dynasty. Khusro khan originally was a Hindu slave who forcefully converted to Islam and ruled the Delhi sultanate.
Many Muslim Nobles and Aristocrats did not like Khusro khan due to his Previous identity. Delhi’s aristocracy invited Ghazi Malik then the Governor of Punjab under Khilji Dynasty to remove khusro khan from the throne. In 1320 AD Ghazi Malik launched an attack on Delhi sultanate with the army of Khokhar tribesman and killed khusro khan.
Important Tughlaq Dynasty Rulers
1. Ghiyasuddin Tughlaq or Ghazi Malik ( 1320-1325 AD ) Founder of Tughlaq Dynasty
Ghiyasuddin Tughlaq or Ghazi Malik was the Founder of Tughlaq Dynasty. He Defeated Khusro khan in the Battle of Saraswati and the Battle of Lahrawat. Khusro khan fled from the battlefield but captured and killed by Ghiyasuddin Tughlaq few days later. He was the first Sultan of Delhi who took up the title of Ghazi or Slayer of the Infidels.
- He Liberalised the Alauddin Khilji Administrative Policies and took a keen interest in Construction of canals and formulated the famine Policy. The Judicial and Police Arrangements were made Efficient.
- He Gave up the Land Measurement system and Started the Batai System or Sharing of Crops. Efficient Postal Service was Restored.
- Tughlaq Policy was Harsh Against Mongols, He had Fought various campaigns against the Mongols defeating them in 1305 AD at the Battle of Amroha.
- In 1323 AD Tughlaq Sent his son Fakhruddin Jauna ( Muhammad Bin Tughlaq ) on an expedition to the Kakatiya Capital Warangal to Re-establish the Authority in Warangal Resulted in the Annexation of Warangal and the end of Kakatiya Dynasty.
- He built the City of Tughlaqabad Near Delhi and made it his Capital.
- He died in 1325 AD after a fall from a high raised pavillion. But Ibn battuta the Moroccan traveller who was in Delhi at that time claimed that his death was arranged by his son Jauna Khan ( Muhammad Bin Tughlaq )
2. Muhammad Bin Tughlaq or Jauna Khan ( 1325-1351 AD )
Aftet the Death of his Father Ghiyasuddin Tughlaq, Muhammad Bin Tughlaq ascended the throne of Delhi in 1325 AD. He was one of the most Extraordinary king who ever sat on the throne of Delhi. He was an expert in Arabic, Persian, Astronomy, Philosophy, Maths and medicine. He conquered Warangal, Malabar and Madurai and areas up to the modern day southern tip of the Indian State Karnataka.
Five Projects of Muhammad Bin Tughlaq
1. Taxation in the Doab ( 1326 AD )
The Sultan Made an ill advised Financial Experiment in the Doab between the Gangas and the Yamuna. He not Only Increased the Rate of Taxation but also revived and created some additional Abwabs or cessess.
2. Transfer of The Capital ( 1327 AD )
The Most controversial step was the Transfer of Capital from Delhi to Deogiri. He renamed Deogiri as Daulatabad. The new Capital was divided into wards called mohalla with separate quarters for Different people like soldiers, Judges, Poets and nobles. Due to his Policy of changing capital many people died on the road due to hunger in Migrated from One place to another.
3. Introduction of Token currency ( 1329 AD )
Muhammad Bin Tughlaq decided to introduced Bronze Coin which would have the Same value as silver coin.
4. The Khurasan Expedition ( 1329 AD )
under the vision of Universal conquest he decided to conquest Khurasan and Iraq and a mobilised a huge army for this purpose.
5. Qarachil Expedition ( 1330 AD )
The expedition was launched in Kumaon hills in the Himalayas allegedly to counter Chinese Incursions. the attack was successful but when the Rainy season set in the invaders suffered terribly. He died in Thatta ( Sind ) while compaigning against a Turkish slave Taghi.
3. Firoz Shah Tughlaq ( 1351-1388 AD ) or Firuz Shah Tughlaq
- Firoz Shah Tughlaq faced the problem of Preventing the Imminent break up of Delhi sultanate, so he tried to appease the Nobility the Army and the Battuta theologians.
- He made the Iqta system Hereditary.
- He extended the Principle of hereditary to the army. The soldiers were not paid by cash but by assignment of lands revenue of villages. This technique led to many abuses.
- In order to Encourage Agriculture, the Sultan paid a lot of attention to irrigation. He repaired a number of canals. The first canal was from Sutlej to Ghaggar. The second canal carried water from Yamuna to hisaar. He imposed Haque-i-Sharb or Hasil-i-sharb ( Water Tax )
- He Encouraged the Practice of Slavery and selected young boys from the Conquered territory for the Purpose. Diwan-i-Bandagon was created as The Department for Slaves.
- He built the New towns of Fatehabad, Hisaar, Jaunpur ( In the Memory of Muhammad Bin Tughlaq ) and Firozabad.
- During his Bengal Campaign he renamed IKdala as Azadpur and Pandua as Firozabad.
- Firoz Shah Tughlaq brought Two pillars of Ashoka from Toparaa and Meerut to Delhi and Repaired Qutub Minar when it was Struck by Lightning.
- He Established hospital at Delhi Known as Darul-Shifa
- A new Department of diwan-i-was set up to make Provision for the Marriage of Poor girls.
- Firoz shah Tughlaq Introduced two new coins – Adha and Bikhh
- Mathura was Destroyed during his Period. barani the Historian was in his Court. He wrote Tarik-i-firoz shahi and Fatwa-i-jahangiri. He died in 1388 AD.
After Firoz shah Tughlaq, Ghiyasuddin Tughlaq shah-1 succeeded. He was replaced by Abu Bakr Shah in 1389 AD. Abu Bakr was replaced by Nasirul Muhammad in 1390 AD. Nasiruddin Muhammad was replaced by Alauddin sikandar shah for a brief period in 1394 but regained the throne after Sikandar death . He ruled till a1412 AD , During His period Timur Invaded India.
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